• Peace, Order, and Good Government comes from British North America Act (1867)
  • Songwriters called Canada “Great Dominion”
  • Founding peoples = Aboriginal, French, British
  • Aboriginal people migrated from Asia thousands of years ago.
  • Territorial rights were first guaranteed through the Royal Proclamation of 1763 by King George III
  • 1800 – 1980 => Aboriginal children in residential schools, Schools were poorly funded, students abused, Aboriginal language and cultural practices were prohibited. In 2008, Ottawa formally apologized to former students.
  • Aboriginal people = 3 groups | First Nations (65%), Metis (30%), Inuit (4%)
  • ‘Indian’ refers to all Aboriginal people who are not Inuit or Métis. Term no longer used. Now they are called ‘First Nations’.
  • About half of First Nations people live on reserve land in about 600 communities | Remaining off the reserve in urban centers
  • Inuit, means “The People” in Inuktitut language live in Arctic. Knowledgeable about land, sea, wildlife
  • Metis = people of mixed Aboriginal and European ancestry. Majority in Prairie provinces. Their dialect = Michif (French + English speaking backgrounds).
  • John Buchan | 1st Baron Tweedsmuir | popular Governor General of Canada (1935-40) | Said “Immigrant groups should retain their individuality and each make its contribution to the national character.” at Canadian Club of Halifax, 1937.
  • Today, Anglophones = 18 million, 7 million Francophones (majority live in Quebec) – 1 million live in Ontario, NB & Manitoba
  • NB is the only official bilingual province
  • Acadians = descendants of French colonists, began settling in the Maritime provinces in 1604.
  • Between 1755 and 1763 (war b/w Britain and France), 2/3rd of Acadians were deported from their homeland. This is known as “Great Upheaval”.
  • Quebecers = People of Quebec (French speaking majority). Descendants of 8500 French settlers
  • The House of Commons recognized in 2006 that the Quebecois form a nation within a united Canada.
  • One million Anglo-Quebecers have a heritage of 250 years | vibrant part of Quebec fabric
  • basic way of life in English-speaking areas established by English, Welsh, Scottish and Irish settlers, soldiers and migrants from the 1600s to 20th century
  • Canada = “Land of immigrants”
  • From 1970s, most immigrants have come from Asian countries.
  • Chinese is second most 2nd most spoken at home.
  • Vancouver = 13% speak Chinese at home | Toronto = 7% speak Chinese at home
  • Majority of Canadians = Christians
  • Canada’s diversity includes gay, lesbian | All protection under the law including marriage
  • Marjorie Turner-Bailey of Nova Scotia = Olympian, descendant of black Loyalists, escaped slaves & free men, fled to Canada in 1780s from America.
  • Huron-Wendat of the Great Lakes region, like the Iroquois = farmers and hunters
  • Cree and Dene of the Northwest = hunter-gatherers
  • Sioux = Nomadic, following bison herds.
  • Inuit = Lived off Arctic wildlife
  • West Coast natives = preserved fish by drying and smoking
  • Warfare was common among Aboriginal groups for resources, land & prestige
  • Many aboriginals died because of European diseases they didn’t have immunity to
  • Vikings from Iceland, colonized Greenland 1000 years go reached Newfoundland & Labrador
  • The remains of their settlement L’Anse aux Meadows = World heritage site
  • European exploration began 1497
  • John Cabot = first to draw a map of Canada’s East Coast.
  • Jacques Cartier, voyages across Atlantic, claiming land for King Francis I of France
  • Jacques Cartier = first European to explore St. Lawrence River, set eyes on present-day Québec City & Montreal
  • Iroquoian word ‘Kanata’ means village
  • By 1550s, name “Canada” began appearing on maps
  • Samuel de Champlain = In 1608, built a fortress in Quebec City
  • French and the Iroquois made peace in 1701
  • French and Aboriginal people collaborated in the vast fur-trade economy, demand for beaver pelts in Europe
  • Jean Talon, Bishop Laval, and Count Frontenac built a French Empire from Hudson Bay to the Gulf of Mexico
  • Sir Guy Carleton (Lord Dorchester) defeated American invasion of Quebec in 1775
  • King Charles II of England = In 1670, granted Hudson’s Bay Company exclusive trading rights over the watershed draining into Hudson Bay
  • Voyageurs / coureurs des bois = Montreal-based traders | men who travelled by canoe | formed strong alliances with First Nations
  • Battle of the Plains of Abraham at Québec City = 1759 | British defeated French marking the end of France’s empire in America
  • Commander of both Armies (Brigadier James Wolfe and the Marquis de Montcalm) were killed in the war
  • After the war, Britain renamed the colony the “Province of Quebec.”
  • Canadiens / Habitants = French speaking Catholic people
  • Quebec Act = 1774 | Passed by British parliament | allowed religious freedom for Catholics and permitted them to hold public office
  • Quebec Act restored French civil law while maintaining British criminal law
  • In 1776, 13 British colonies to the south of Quebec declared independence and formed the United States.
  • People loyal to the Crown = “Loyalists” fled oppression and moved to Nova Scotia and Quebec
  • Joseph Brant led thousands of Loyalist Mohawk Indians to Canada
  • In 1792, some black Nova Scotians were given poor land, moved on to establish Freetown, Sierra Leone

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