• First representative assembly in Halifax, NS in 1758 | PEI in 1773 | NB in 1785
  • Constitutional Act = 1791 | divided Province of Quebec to Upper Canada (Ontario) & Lower Canada (Quebec)
  • Constitutional Act of 1791 granted, for the first time to the Canadas, legislative assemblies elected by the people
  • “Canada” became the official name of the land in 1791
  • Atlantic colonies and the two Canadas were known collectively as British North America
  • First elected Assembly of Lower Canada | in Quebec City on Jan 21 1793 | debated whether to use both French and English
  • Upper Canada in 1793 | led by Lieutenant Governor John Graves Simcoe | became the first province in the Empire to move toward abolition
  • 1807 = British Parliament prohibited buying and selling slaves
  • 1833 = Abolished slavery throughout the empire
  • Slaves escaped from US, followed “the North Star” and settled in Canada via the Underground Railroad, a Christian anti-slavery network
  • Fort Garry is in Winnipeg | Fort Langley is in Vancouver
  • Montreal Stock Exchange opened in 1832
  • The War of 1812 | Americans lost | United States launched an invasion in June 1812
  • In July, Major-General Sir Isaac Brock captured Detroit | Died when defending against an American attack at Queenston Heights, Niagara Falls
  • In 1813, Lieutenant-Colonel Charles de Salaberry | turned back 4,000 American invaders at Chateauguay, south of Montreal
  • In 1813 the Americans burned Government House and the Parliament Buildings in York (now Toronto)
  • In 1814, as a retaliation, Major-General Robert Ross led an expedition from Nova Scotia that burned down the White House and other public buildings in Washington | the American attempt to conquer Canada had failed
  • Present Day Canada – US border is partly an outcome of the War of 1812, which ensured that Canada would remain independent of the United States
  • In 1814, Duke of Wellington sent some of his best soldiers to defend Canada. He chose Ottawa (Bytown) as endpoint of Rideau Canal (network of forts to prevent USA from invading Canada again). He defeated Napoleon in 1815, founded the national capital.
  • In 1813, Laura Secord (pioneer wife and mother of five children) made a dangerous 19-mile (30 km) journey on foot to warn Lieutenant James Fitz Gibbon of planned American Attack. Her bravery contributed to victory at the Battle of Beaver Dams.
  • Lord Durham – English reformer, recommended that Upper and Lower Canada be merged and given responsible government
  • Sir Étienne-Paschal Taché, Sir George-Étienne Cartier, Sir John Alexander Macdonald = Fathers of confederation
  • In 1840, Upper & Lower Canada united as ‘Province of Canada’.
  • Sir Louis-Hippolyte La Fontaine, Robert Baldwin, Joseph Howe (NS) worked with British governors towards responsible government
  • In 1847 – 48, Nova Scotia was the first North American colony to attain full responsible government
  • In 1848–49 the governor of United Canada, Lord Elgin introduced responsible government
  • La Fontaine, a champion of democracy and French language rights, became the first leader of a responsible government in the Canadas
  • 1864 – 1867 | representatives from NS, NB & Province of Canada formed a new country.
  • Federal & provincial governments were created
  • Province of Canada split into Ontario and Quebec
  • 1867 = British North America Act
  • July 1, 1867 = Dominion of Canada was born
  • The term “Dominion of Canada” was used for 100 years
  • July 1 = Dominion Day (until 1982) | Today, it is called “Canada day”
  • Sir Leonard Tilley | suggested the term “Dominion of Canada” | “dominion from sea to sea and from the river to the ends of the earth.”
  • When provinces joined Canada
  • 1867 — Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick
  • 1870 — Manitoba, Northwest Territories (N.W.T.)
  • 1871 — British Columbia
  • 1873 — Prince Edward Island
  • 1880 — Transfer of the Arctic Islands (to N.W.T.)
  • 1898 — Yukon Territory
  • 1905 — Alberta, Saskatchewan
  • 1949 — Newfoundland and Labrador
  • 1999 — Nunavut
  • Sir John Alexander Macdonald – Canada’s first Prime Minister | Father of Confederation
  • Jan 11 = Sir John A Macdonald day
  • His portrait is on $10 bill
  • Sir George-Étienne Cartier | key architect of Confederation from Quebec | He led Quebec into confederation | Helped negotiate entry of NWT. Manitoba & BC into Canada
  • In 1869 – Louis Riel from Manitoba led an armed uprising and seized Fort Garry (territorial capital)
  • Riel fled to US and Canada established a new province: Manitoba
  • Louis Riel = a defender of Métis rights and the father of Manitoba.
  • Major General Sir Sam Steele | A great frontier hero, Mounted Policeman, and soldier of the Queen
  • Gabriel Dumont was the Métis’ greatest military leader
  • British Columbia joined Canada in 1871 after Ottawa promised to build a railway to the West Coast.
  • Chinese were subject to discrimination, including the Head Tax, a race-based entry fee. The Government of Canada apologized in 2006 for this discriminatory policy.
  • After many years of heroic work, the Canadian Pacific Railway’s “ribbons of steel” fulfilled a national dream.
  • Sir Wilfrid Laurier = First French-Canadian prime minister
  • Over 7,000 fought in Boer War (1899–1902) in South Africa
  • More than 600,000 Canadians served in the war
  • The Canadian Corps captured Vimy Ridge in April 1917, securing the Canadians’ reputation for valour as the “shock troops of the British Empire.”
  • April 9 = Vimy Day
  • General Sir Arthur Currie = Canada’s greatest soldier | Commander of the Canadian Corps
  • Victory in Battle of Amiens on August 8, 1918 (“Black Day of the German Army”)
  • 60,000 Canadians were killed and 170,000 wounded
  • Agnes MacPhail (farmer and teacher) became the first woman MP in 1921
  • Women’s suffrage movement = effort by women to achieve the right to vote
  • In 1918, most Canadian female citizens aged 21 and over were granted the right to vote in federal elections
  • Quebec granted women the vote in 1940
  • November 11 = Remembrance Day | Canadians wear the red poppy
  • Remembering the sacrifices of millions of brave men and women who served / died for the nation
  • Stock Market Crash of 1929 led to great depression
  • Bank of Canada was created in 1934
  • Immigration dropped and refugees (including Jews fleeing Nazi Germany) were turned away
  • June 6, 1944 | D-Day invasion at Normandy
  • 15000 Canadian troops captured Juno beach on June 6, 1944 as a part of D-Day invasion
  • More than one million Canadians and Newfoundlanders served in World War 2
  • Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) took part in the Battle of Britain | provided a high proportion of Commonwealth aircrew in bombers and fighter planes over Europe
  • The Royal Canadian Navy (RCN) saw its finest hour in the Battle of the Atlantic protecting convoys of merchant ships against German submarines
  • The discovery of oil in Alberta in 1947 began Canada’s modern energy industry
  • The Canada Health Act ensures common elements and a basic standard of coverage
  • Unemployment insurance (now called “employment insurance”) was introduced by the federal government in 1940
  • Old Age Security was devised in as 1927. Quebec Pension Plans was created in 1965.
  • Canada joined with other countries of the West to form a military alliance -the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
  • Canada joined with US and formed North American Aerospace Defence Command (NORAD)
  • Quiet Revolution in 1960s = an era of rapid change in Quebec
  • In 1963 Parliament established the Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism
  • Official Languages Act was passed in 1969
  • In 1970 | La Francophonie was founded | It is an international association of French-speaking countries
  • Movement for Quebec sovereignty | Referendum defeated in 1982 AND 1995

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