• The Atlantic Provinces
  • Central Canada
  • The Prairie Provinces
  • The West Coast
  • The Northern Territories
  • National Capital Region (NCR) = Ottawa (located on Ottawa River).
  • Ottawa = 4th largest metropolitan area (4700 sq km)
  • 10 provinces and 3 territories
  • Population of Canada ~ 34 million people

Atlantic region = Newfoundland and Labrador (St. John’s), Prince Edward Island (Charlottetown), Nova Scotia (Halifax), New Brunswick (Fredericton)

Central Canada = Ontario (Toronto), Quebec (Quebec City)

Prairie Provinces = Manitoba (Winnipeg), Alberta (Edmonton), Saskatchewan (Regina)

West Coast = British Columbia (Victoria)

North = Nunavut (Iqaluit), Northwest Territories (Yellowknife), Yukon Territory (Whitehorse)

Newfoundland and Labrador:

  • Most easterly point in North America
  • Has its own time zone
  • Oldest colony of British Empire
  • Fisheries, Coastal Village Fishing
  • Off-shore oil and gas extraction
  • Labrador has hydro-electric resources

Prince Edward Island:

  • Smallest Province
  • Known for beaches, red soil, agriculture (potatoes)
  • Birthplace of confederation
  • Connected to Canada by longest multi-spam bridge in the world (Confederation bridge)

Nova Scotia:

  • Most populous Atlantic province
  • Rich history as “Gateway to Canada”
  • Shipbuilding, Fisheries, Shipping
  • Halifax is the largest East coast port
  • Halifax is Important in Atlantic trade, defence
  • Halifax has Canada’s largest Naval base
  • Celtic and Gaelic traditions sustain a vibrant culture in the province

New Brunswick:

  • Situated in the Appalachian Range
  • Founded by United Empire Loyalists
  • Second largest river system on North America’s Atlantic coastline – St. John River system
  • Saint John is the largest city
  • Only official bi-lingual province
  • 1/3rd of the population is French


  • 8 million people in Quebec
  • St. Lawrence River
  • 3/4th speak French as first language
  • Main producer of pulp and paper
  • Largest producer of hydro electricity
  • Pharmaceuticals and aeronautics industries
  • Montreal = largest French speaking city in the world after Paris
  • Quebec films and works of art have international stature in La Francophonie (association of French-speaking nations)


  • More than 12 million people
  • Toronto = largest city in Canada AND country’s main financial center
  • Many work in Service or manufacturing industries
  • Niagara region is known for vineyards, wines, fruit crops
  • Founded by United Empire loyalists
  • Ontario has the largest French speaking population outside of Quebec
  • 5 great lakes = Lake Ontario, Lake Erie, Lake Huron, Lake Michigan, Lake Superior (largest freshwater lake in the world)


  • Agriculture, Mining, Hydro-electric power generation
  • Most populous city = Winnipeg
  • Most famous street intersection in Canada = Portage and Main
  • 14% of Ukrainian origins and over 15% of Aboriginal population


  • Once known as “Breadbasket of the world” | “Wheat Province”
  • 40% of arable land in Canada
  • Largest producer of grains and oilseed
  • World’s richest deposits of Uranium, Potash
  • Regina (Capital) = Training Academy of RCMP
  • Saskatoon (largest city in Saskatchewan) = Headquarters of mining industry, educational, research & Tech center


  • Most populous prairie province
  • Largest producer of oil and gas
  • Lake Louise in the Rocky Mountains
  • Province and the lake named after Princess Louise Caroline Alberta (4th daughter of Queen Victoria)
  • 5 National Parks including Banff (est. in 1885)
  • Rugged badlands have world’s richest deposits of prehistoric fossil and dinosaur finds
  • Also known for agriculture, vast cattle ranches, one of the world’s major beef producers

British Columbia

  • Canada’s western most province
  • Population of 4 million
  • Port of Vancouver = Gateway to Asia-Pacific
  • 1/2 of goods produced are forestry, lumber, newsprint, pulp & paper products
  • Also known for mining, fishing, fruit orchards, wine industry
  • Most extensive park system with over 600 parks
  • Largest Asian communities (Chinese and Punjabi are most spoken after English)
  • Victoria is capital, a tourist center and headquarters of Navy’s pacific fleet


  • Thousands of miners came to the Yukon during the Gold Rush of the 1890s
  • The White Pass and Yukon Railway opened in 1900
  • White pass and Yukon railway operates from Alaska to Whitehorse
  • Coldest temperature ever recorded in Canada (-63 degrees C)
  • Mt. Logan = Highest Mountain in Canada (named after William Logan, geologist)
  • William Logan is one of the greatest scientists of Canada

Northwest Territories:

  • Made from Rupert’s Land and North-Western Territory.
  • Capital = Yellowknife (population 20,000)
  • Yellowknife is called “Diamond Capital of North America”
  • More than 1/2 of population is aboriginal (Dene, Inuit and Métis)
  • Mackenzie River (4200hm) is the second largest river in North America after Mississippi and drains an area of 1.8 million square km


  • Nunavut means “our land’ in Inuktitut language
  • Established in 1999
  • The capital is Iqaluit
  • The 19-member Legislative Assembly chooses a premier and ministers by consensus.
  • The population is about 85% Inuit
  • Inuktitut is an official language and the first language in schools.

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